Update (3/20/2018): The name of the toolkit has changed from HoloToolKit to MixedRealityToolkit, following the 2017 Windows 10 Fall Creators' Update. Since most of my articles are older than that, HoloToolKit and MixedRealityToolkit can be used interchangeably. If you find any mistakes, please let me know and I'll fix it.
After a bit of a struggle, I was finally able to install all the required tools to get started. I am using Unity 2017 (Personal edition), the latest version of the HoloToolkit pulled from the Git repository, and Visual Studio Professional 2017.
Setting up your PC
One of the first things you need to do in order to get started is to set up your PC in developer mode
You can enable this by navigating to the following location:
Settings → Update and Security → For developers
Once here, enable the radio button feature "Developer mode" under Use developer features